The most important new activity in German-occupied Europe was the appearance of organized civilian resistance. At first, there were only individual acts of defiance, like that of the Dutch film projectionist who ran a newsreel of advancing Germans backward, to the brief delight of his audience. But the resistance movements took shape in every country and grew to become a major problem in policing for the Germans as the war turned against the Nazi regime.
The most important new activity in German-occupied Europe was the appearance of organized civilian resistance. At first, there were only individual acts of defiance, like that of the Dutch film projectionist who ran a newsreel of advancing Germans backward, to the brief delight of his audience.
But the resistance movements took shape in every country and grew to become a major problem in policing for the Germans as the war turned against the Nazi regime. In retaliation, the Nazis increased the severity of the military occupation, imprisoned and executed hostages.
Thus a shadow form of civil war intensified as the regular war front crumbled before the Germans. Civilian life was plagued by shortages of food, fuel, medicine.
But the most pressing problem was housing, and this most drastic in Germany. Consider only the following single statistical unit: On August 24,the German city of Koenigsberg was attacked by British bombers.
The estimated damage of the raid was one hundred and thirty-four thousand people made homeless, and sixty-one thousand people forced to live in badly damaged houses. After the war, new cities had to be built - Coventry, Rotterdam, and Berlin being examples - and they were technocratically planned.
With an irony that once again underlined the fact that history is a human affair, the destruction of the war brought about considerable reorganization.
Even before the war, the Soviet leadership began the relocation of Russian industry in and beyond the Ural Mountains so that it would not be susceptible to immediate ground attack from the West. During the war the Germans decentralized industrial production by dispersing aircraft factories around the country in order to protect them against concentrated bombing attack.
And under the German occupation, the puppet government of France, known as the Vichy Regime from the city in which its capital was located, sought economic reorganization and began the foundations of what would be postwar planning under Jean Bichelonne, an engineering professor who was Minister of Production and Transport.
Even more unusual, and with effects not easily measurable, was the intellectual migration the war produced. In the s eminent scientists like Albert Einstein had left Nazi Germany, but immediately after the war, both the United States and Russia undertook a rushed treasure hunt as they sought to find and then utilize German scientists, notably those involved in rocket research.
Werner von Braun, guiding genius of German war rocketry, came to the United States, eventually became an American citizen, and is today recognized as the technocratic father of American space efforts.
Thus, the war destroyed and forced the rearrangement of much of the old social and economic structure of Europe, just as it rearranged the political map. The truth is the European world we now know was born in debris.
The War in a Global Setting No balanced historical analysis can afford to treat the European war as disunified from the global war. Among the major continents, only Latin America was spared serious involvement.
Even Australia, traditionally known as "down under," feared Japanese invasion. And American blimps patrolled the Atlantic coast of this formerly "isolated" nation in search of preying submarines. For once in military engagement, the world was viewed from above.
While it is certainly true that the infantry soldier struggled and sacrificed to defeat the enemy, and ultimate victory was his, the war of the air was all important.
The fighter defense of Great Britain and the bomber offensive against Germany after altered the proportions of the war. In a tone of despair, the British prime minister, Stanley Baldwin, had said in"The bombers will always get through.
Across the world, the Pacific naval war was essentially an aerial war, with aircraft carriers serving as seaborne take-off points. The dramatic sinking of the magnificent and brand-new British battleship the Prince of Wales by Japanese torpedo bombers on December 10,can be taken as the symbolic end of the age of battleships.
Thus, the first major naval warfare since the Napoleonic era also announced the end of traditional naval warfare.The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May (Victory in Europe Day).
Europe In Retrospect, A Brief History of the Past Two Hundred Years by Raymond F. Betts: History Directories: No balanced historical analysis can afford to treat the European war as disunified from the global war. Among the major continents, only Latin America was spared serious involvement.
But the so-called Second Thirty Years War. After World War II ended in , Europe was divided into Western Europe and Eastern Europe by the Iron Curtain The physical barrier in the form of walls, barbed wire, or land mines that divided Eastern Europe and Western Europe during the Cold War..
Eastern Europe fell under the influence of the Soviet Union, and the region was separated from the West. Napoleonic Wars, series of wars between Napoleonic France and shifting alliances of other European powers that produced a brief French hegemony over most of plombier-nemours.com with the French Revolutionary wars, the Napoleonic Wars comprise a year period of recurrent conflict that concluded only with the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon’s second .
What were the long-term ramifications of the Hundred Years' War for England and for France? England was no longer a continental power and only Calais was left in its hands.
France was saved from its long agony and the Valois monarchy became strong. The end of the Thirty Years War produced a number of dramatic consequences and altered Western Europe in significant religious, political, and social ways. Generally speaking, the post-war period produced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the subsequent fall of the Hapsburg powers.