The Census is the enumeration of the inhabitants of a state taken by order of the Government as desired by the legislature. It is conducted periodically, at the end of each ten-year.
First, the Tendulkar Committee reported an observed calorie intake of 1, and 1, kilocalories per day for those near the new poverty line in population census of india essays for scholarships and urban areas, respectively.
Second, the new methodology did not consider the possibility of changes in consumer preferences, which means that the commodity bundle of does not now capture the current pattern of consumption in India. Third, differential rates of inflation for food and non-food items were not taken into account.
The new poverty line has also caused an intense debate in political circles, to the extent that the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Rural Development had to state that a socio-economic and caste-economic census was underway to revise the existing poverty lines although the Tendulkar poverty line will remain as a reference point for eligibility for the subsidized food and other social protection programmes.
Bythe percentage of people in poverty had fallen to 26 percent in rural areas, and to just 1. This represents a fall of million people, from million in to The result was one of the lowest rural poverty lines in the developing world.
Why does it matter?
Why is it important to redefine poverty lines in China and India? The present debate and action on redefining the poverty lines of China and India is significant for at least two reasons. Second, by lifting the official poverty lines, the two countries have increased, in principle, the number of people that are eligible to receive support from social protection policies.
If social protection programmes in the two countries prove to be effective in facilitating poverty exit, this could lead to a significant reduction in global poverty, even if less progress is made in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and the rest of East and South Asia.
However, the two giants face important challenges in that process. Making growth more inclusive India and, especially, China have enjoyed rapid economic growth, with a median growth rate of 6 percent and 10 percent in the period, respectively. This has catapulted the growth in per capita gross national income GNI in the two countries: A significant part of the domestic investment in China, about 20 percent of GDP, has gone to infrastructure projects, which is nearly 10 times more than in India.
That has facilitated the accelerated rate at which the Chinese economy has transited from agricultural to manufacturing production. In India, the transition has been towards the information technology IT off-shore service industry, with as much as 60 percent of the labour force remaining engaged in traditional farming activities.
Economic growth is a necessary condition to rising per capita income, but it is nonetheless insufficient to guarantee a steady trend towards poverty reduction. In China, for instance, the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction is far from being linear, with episodes of high economic performance in the s accompanied with increases in the poverty rates.
In India, since the late s the country has experienced the fastest economic growth, and yet the speed at which poverty is being reduced has decelerated. This highlights the importance of public interventions in making growth more inclusive. Indeed, it is now well understood that policies designed to maximize growth can only trickle down to the poor if they are accompanied by wealth redistribution, employment opportunities, investments in human capital and the provision of social protection for the most vulnerable groups in society.
Tacking growing inequalities Spatial inequalities are particularly evident across China, with western and interior rural communities experiencing much weaker effects from economic growth than the eastern coastal provinces.
This, in combination with the fact that the national Gini coefficients are higher than both the rural and urban Ginis, indicates that the rural—urban divide is driving the growing levels of inequity in the country.
In India, the Ginis have been consistently higher in the urban areas, with the rural—urban divide also growing over the last two decades. Fiscal policies have a lot to do with wealth redistribution.
Tax rates in China and India are low, with most revenues coming from indirect taxes. This also reflects the low share of government revenues as percentage of GDP, which oscillates around 20 percent. This is in contrast with the average of 50 percent observed in OECD countries.
Tax systems in both countries remain limited to maximizing redistributive policies — and to a large extent, they will also limit the capacity of these countries to tackle extreme deprivation in the coming years.
Employment generation China and India also face significant challenges in terms of employment generation. Rising unemployment is a driving factor in the incidence of poverty in urban areas in China, which has been exacerbated by market-oriented structural reforms and large migration flows of unskilled workers from rural areas to the cities.
Migrant workers face exclusion from formal employment arrangements and state benefits such as housing, health and school subsidies, as well as income support from social protection schemes.
But the capacity of China to continue absorbing a larger share of the global consumer goods markets is becoming increasingly limited, with other emerging markets, including India, aggressively competing for a share. By the same token, it is unclear the extent to which the growing IT industry in India will be able to catalyse sustained growth, given the large unskilled labour force that remains poor and disconnected from the booming economy.
Public service provision China and India have made important progress in public service provision, which is associated with the reduction in the poverty rates observed in the two countries. In rural China, for instance, healthcare access is largely via out-of-pocket expenses that absorb a large share of household expenditure among poor households.
In India, there are serious concerns about the quality of public services, which are very low by international standards. When desegregating the HDI by its components, we also observe that in India both health and especially education indicators fall behind countries with similar per capita incomes.
Evidence of schools without books and teachers, and health clinics without doctors and drugs, is vast and disturbing. It also shows the importance of increasing public expenditure on the social sectors to improve the accessibility to, and quality of, health and education, and ultimately, to reduce poverty.
Strengthening social protection Social protection in the two countries remains highly fragmented.
In China, the Minimum Living Subsidy Scheme also known as Di Bao was introduced in to support the urban unemployed poor who had been affected by the market-based structural reforms.When writing a population college essay, there are so many aspects of population that a person can write about.
There can be an essay of population increase in countries like India and China; a population essay which talks about the meagre population in Australia, or an essay on population of a certain species of animal in the US which is decreasing.
Write essay on my classroom you admire most word essay format body paragraph word essay jungle book games words essay on census zip one page essay on hope lose weight best essay writing company uk june writer essay my favorite restaurant english words essay on mobile phone clean india green india to word.
Status of English in India.
Hindi is the official language of the Union Government of plombier-nemours.comr, even after 70 years of Indian Independence from Britain, English is still retained with a status of the "subsidiary" official language. Only a few hundred thousand Indians, or less than % of the total population, have English as their first language.
Introduction to Population Human resource, the people of the country, constitutes the greatest resource.
According to the census, 50 per cent of India’s population is in the age group of 0–25 years. 65% of the total population is below the age of 35 years. The most densely populated state ( census) is West Bengal ( persons. Based on population census shows that about % of all poor families in the Philippines income below the poverty line (income poverty line population is RM) and about 86% of that number are in rural areas.
Nov 06, · in his lament changing face of indian villages essays for scholarships he is like an animal. a paragraph schools and hospitals. india’s high population density and detailed business plan lnat example essays about education the socio economic caste census is the first comprehensive exercise to case search.