Woe to any author who mixes names or locations. However, it seems to me that any historic fiction that does not take place in Britain or North America post requires extra effort. Research books are available, of course, but these for the most part ignore all but Anglo-Saxon cultures. The Orient especially seems to be susceptible to misinformation, ignorance and to some extent, smugness.
Introduction This family contains by far the most species in the Iranian freshwater ichthyofauna and is divided into two files Abramis to Cyprinus hereand Garra to Vimba see both in Contents. The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates the Gobiidae may be the first.
The family is found in North America, Eurasia and Africa. Other common names in English for species include barbels, breams, roaches, snow trouts, bitterlings, shiners, daces, chubs, barbs, "sharks", among many others. There are about genera and over species Nelson, ; Eschmeyer and Fong,about 8.
In Iran, the family is represented by about? Collares-Pereira argues that the polyploid condition e. There are unbranched rays including rudimentary ones in the dorsal and anal fins followed by the more numerous branched rays the last two branched rays are counted as one.
The first pectoral and the first pelvic fin ray are unbranched and not included in counts. Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening.
The arch has to be removed with dissecting equipment to count the teeth. Tooth counts are presented as a formula such as 2,1 which indicates 2 teeth in the outer left row and 4 on the inner right row.
Teeth may be lost from major or minor rows so variant formulae are given after the principal one. A horny pad on the underside of the basioccipital bone of the skull is used to masticate the food against. Tooth form varies with the food - molar-shaped teeth are used to crush molluscs, flat but grooved surfaces for grinding plant food and sharp edged teeth for slicing various invertebrate foods.
These two subfamilies contain many Iranian genera. The origin of cyprinids is estimated at They also found the phylogenetic utility of barbel possession to be limited as they were acquired independently in the two subfamilies. The number of rows of pharyngeal teeth were a more reliable phylogenetic marker, at least at the generic level.
Chen and Mayden investigated the major clades of cyprinids using a multiple nuclear gene approach and tentatively recommended elevation of certain subfamilies to family.
This is not in general use at this writing and the Cyprinidae is retained as a single family here. The Lago Mare dispersion occurred during a salinity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea 5. Some data of Durand et al. But note that some authors place Barbus grypus in the Indian genus Tor and that evidently more work needs to be done on its relationships and on those of other species that have no evident Euro-Mediterranean relatives, but whose origins may well lie in the Oriental Region.
Other Middle Eastern cyprinid genera are regarded by Durand et al. Cyprinion has no sister species in the Euro-Mediterranean area and has been isolated in the Middle East since before the salinity crisis, 7.
Cyprinion may have entered the Middle East during the colonization event that isolated the genera Barbus sensu lato and Schizothorax in the European and Asian basins respectively.
The divergence of these species is similar in time to the radiation of the Leuciscinae supposedly centred in Siberia based on fossil records. Siberia was probably an important dispersion centre for both Leucicinae and Cyprininae at that time. Otero describes a?
Some species may enter brackish water but the family is primarily a freshwater one. Carps have extremely sensitive hearing via the Weberian apparatus and this is thought to account for their success.
Carps produce an "alarm substance" when injured. This chemical stimulates other carps to flee and hide, another useful adaptation. Carps are remarkable for changes they undergo during the spawning season.
Some fish, which are usually silvery, develop bright reds and yellows. Nuptial, pearl or breeding tubercles develop on the head, scales and fin rays often in distinct patterns, and there are swellings of the head or fin rays in some species.
These changes are most apparent in males. Tubercles and swollen rays are used to clasp females during the spawning act. Generally males have longer pectoral fins than females. Tubercles are also used to fight other males and defend and clean nests.
Colour attracts females for mating. Nest building males are larger than females, the reverse of the situation in most fishes where egg-bearing females are the largest. Not all species build nests and some simply broadcast eggs over weed, gravel or sand.Reggae Playground [Sound Recording] Vol IV, Jackson Joe Martin Van Buren - The Little Magician, Pierre-Marie Loizeau Border-line Insanity, Tim Ramsden The Brave and the Bold, v.
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