The precise circumstances and date of founding remain obscure, but nevertheless a legend survives.
Brittonic also includes WelshBreton and the Cumbric language ; the last is extinct. As a result of westward Anglo-Saxon expansionthe Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria.
Some scholars have proposed that this split took place after the Battle of Deorham in about The western dialects eventually evolved into modern Welsh and the now extinct Cumbricwhile Southwestern Brittonic developed into Cornish and Breton, the latter as a result of emigration to the continent modern Brittany over the following centuries.
The earliest written record of the Cornish language comes from this period; a 9th-century gloss in a Latin manuscript of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethiuswhich used the words ud rocashaas. The phrase means "it the mind hated the gloomy places".
At this time there was still little difference between Welsh and Cornish, and even fewer differences between Cornish and Breton, with some scholars arguing that the terms "Old Cornish" and "Old Breton" are merely geographical terms for the same language. Middle Cornish The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia the magnum opus of medieval Cornish literaturewritten by an unknown monk in the late 14th century Beunans Meriasek The life of St Meriasek f.
Middle Cornish Saint's Play The Cornish language continued to flourish well through the Middle Cornish period —reaching a peak of about 39, speakers in the 13th century, after which the number started to decline.
Together these provide about 20, lines of text. Various plays were written by the canons of Glasney Collegeintended to educate the Cornish people about the Bible and the Celtic saints.
From this period also is Beunans Meriasek and the recently discovered Bewnans Ke. He states, "In Cornwall is two speches, the one is naughty Englysshe, and the other is Cornysshe speche. And there be many men and women the which cannot speake one worde of Englysshe, but all Cornyshe.
The intention of the Act was to replace worship in Latin with worship in English, which was known by the lawmakers not to be universally spoken throughout England. Instead of merely banning Latin, the Act was framed so as to enforce English. The Prayer Book Rebellionwhich may also have been influenced by the retaliation of the English after the failed Cornish Rebellion ofbroke out, and was ruthlessly suppressed: Their leaders were executed and the people suffered numerous reprisals.
The rebels' document claimed they wanted a return to the old religious services and ended, "We the Cornishmen whereof certain of us understand no English utterly refuse this new English [altered spelling].
A map showing the westward decline of Cornish, — Through many factors, including loss of life and the spread of English, the Prayer Book Rebellion proved a turning-point for the Cornish language.
Indeed, some recent research has suggested that estimates of the Cornish-speaking population prior to the rebellion may have been low, making the decline even more drastic.
Peter Berresford-Ellis cites the years — as a century of immense damage for the language, and its decline can be traced to this period. InWilliam Scawen wrote an essay describing 16 reasons for the decline of Cornish, among them the lack of a distinctive Cornish alphabet, the loss of contact between Cornwall and Brittanythe cessation of the miracle plays, loss of records in the Civil War, lack of a Cornish bible, and immigration to Cornwall.
In his Survey of Cornwall, published inRichard Carew writes: Written sources from this period are largely spelled following English spelling conventions since the majority of writers of the time had had no exposure to Middle Cornish texts or the Cornish orthography within them.
InWilliam Bodinarwho had learnt Cornish from fishermen, wrote a letter in Cornish which was probably the last prose in the language. However, the last verse was the Cranken Rhymewritten in the late 19th century by John Davey of Boswednack.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was intense academic and antiquarian interest in the language, particularly in the Middle Cornish literature, and also in attempting to find the last native speaker of the Cornish language.
Despite the announcements of the death of the language, this academic interest, along with the beginning of the Celtic Revival in the late 19th Century, provided the groundwork for a Cornish language revival movement. The publication of this book is often considered to be the point at which the revival movement started.
The revival focused on reconstructing and standardising the language, including coining new words for modern concepts, and creating educational material in order to teach Cornish to others. In Robert Morton Nance published his Unified Cornish system, based on the Middle Cornish literature while extending the attested vocabulary with forms based on Celtic roots also found in Breton and Welsh, publishing a dictionary in Nance's work became the basis of revived Cornish for most of the 20th century.
However, as the revival grew in strength and focus shifted from written to spoken Cornish, Nance's stiff, archaic formulation of the language seemed less suitable for a spoken revival, and academic research into the traditional literature proved that the Unified system lacked some phonological distinctions.
Like Unified Cornish, it retained a Middle Cornish base but implemented an orthography that aspired to be as phonemic as possible. It was subsequently adopted by the Cornish Language Board as well as by many Cornish speakers, but came under fierce criticism by academic linguists for its phonological base, as well as those who found its orthography too different from traditional Cornish spelling conventions.
Also during this period, Richard Gendall created his Modern Cornish system also known as "Revived Late Cornish"which used Late Cornish as a basis, and Nicholas Williams published a revised version of Unified; however neither of these systems gained the popularity of Unified or Kemmyn.
The revival entered a period of factionalism and public disputes, with each orthography attempting to push the others aside. By the time that Cornish was recognised by the UK government under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages init had become recognised that the existence of multiple orthographies was unsustainable with regards to using the language in education and public life, as none had achieved a wide consensus.
A process of unification was set about which resulted in the creation of the public-body Cornish Language Partnership in and agreement on a Standard Written Form in The modern-day Cornish language is a successfully revived language with a number of speakers that is slowly increasing, and is becoming more visible in Cornwall as local government and business are encouraged to make use of the language as part of revitalisation efforts.
Geographic distribution The percentage of people who recorded Cornish as their main language for each civil parish in Cornwall during the UK census.ceci plan drôle partout attend joue parfois cher exemple inspecteur vendre liberté business your organiser étonne terroristes that micro ordure Application essay examples cedar grove middle school phone number business bank rs to usb wiring diagram creche business plan pdf discuss how socratic questions contribute to sound critical thinking primary homework help mosque thematic analysis pdf t shirt printer machine price why smoking should be banned remember the titans summary and.
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