An overview of the concentrated animal feeding operations

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An overview of the concentrated animal feeding operations

Elizabeth A Overcash Place of Publication: Briefly, the overview notes the animal welfare, environmental, and human health concerns that have arisen with CAFOs.

Finally, the overview notes the legislation and ballot initiatives that have been enacted to address these concerns.

American agriculture has changed dramatically over the past century, moving from traditionally small family farms to a large agricultural industry, where currently only four companies produce eighty-one percent of cows, seventy-three percent of sheep, fifty percent of chickens, and sixty percent of hogs that Americans eat.

To keep up with the increase in meat consumption, the agricultural industry now produces as much meat as possible with as little cost as possible, turning modern farming into a business. Inthere were 8. Almost all of these animals are raised on Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.

Feed is brought to the animals rather than the animals grazing or otherwise seeking feed in pastures, fields, or on rangeland.

CAFOs raise animal welfare, environmental degradation, and human health concerns.

Confined animal feeding operations. Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a source of agricultural pollution and pose risks to water quality and public health due to the large amount of manure generated (USEPA, ). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that animal waste production in was 13 times greater on a dry weight basis than human production. First, a few preliminaries. To determine the number of animals saved by a vegetarian, we need at least two numbers: the total number of animals killed for food consumed in the US in a given year and the size of the US population during that year. A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year. An animal unit is "an animal equivalent of pounds live weight and.

In terms of animal welfare, one of the greatest concerns is the close confinement and crowdedness of the animals. These conditions create boredom and stress in the animals, as well as physical and mental illnesses.

In terms of environmental degradation and human health concerns, the number one problem is animal manure, which is produced in such massive quantities that the soil cannot absorb the waste, thus leaving it to run off fields and pollute the surrounding soil and water, including human drinking water.

Additionally, methane emissions from CAFOs both contribute to greenhouse gases and create adverse physical and mental health impacts in humans. CAFOs also increase the prevalence of antibiotic resistant diseases, due to the antibiotics regularly given to the animals.

While agribusiness has rapidly expanded, measures to protect animals, the environment, and human health have not kept pace with its growth. Beginning inseveral states enacted ballot proposals that focused on creating minimum confinement standards for animals on CAFOs. In reaction to these ballot initiatives, state legislation concerning animal welfare on CAFOs also sprang up.

Concerns of this legislation included confinement standards, the treatment of nonambulatory animals, humane slaughter methods, the force-feeding of birds, and tail docking.

Ballot initiatives are much more effective than legislation in providing relief to animal confinement concerns, as they are created and voted on directly by the people, thus bypassing political constraints that might otherwise hinder legislative progress on these issues.

Ballot initiatives tend to make greater advancements for animal welfare than do legislative acts, and are often begun by animal interest organizations such as the Humane Society of the United States or Farm Sanctuary.

These initiatives have tended to spur legislation because agribusiness leaders attempt to preempt the more progressive ballot initiatives by encouraging legislatures to enact more conservative animal legislation before the ballot initiatives ever come to vote.

Ballot initiatives, therefore, currently provide the most effective way of enacting change in animal welfare and treatment on CAFOs, as well as the most progressive form of change.The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Monitoring and Modeling of Emissions from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Overview of Methods Bryan Bunton, 1 Patrick O’Shaughnessy, 2 Sean Fitzsimmons, John Gering, 1 Stephen Hoff, 3 Merete Lyngbye, 4. Animal Feeding Operations The U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines AF Os as agricultural enterprises where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. AFOs congregate animals, feed, manure and urine, dead animals, and production operations on a small land area.

Provides information about how the permit program interacts with other CWA programs to protect and improve water quality, and provides resources for professionals working in the program at the federal, state, local, and firm level, and concerned public.

North Carolina has the strongest permit program for concentrated animal feeding operations in the country and is one of the only states that requires annual inspections of every facility. Cannibal is a perk in Fallout 3, Fallout: New Vegas, Fallout 4 and Fallout 76 that allows the player character to engage in cannibalism.

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An overview of the concentrated animal feeding operations

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